Jung, C. J: Princeton University Press , pp. Cohen, B. Williams, M. The aim of this seminar is to provide a close reading of a key text of Jung, in which he discusses the concept of Personality. Delivered originally as a lecture in Vienna in , at the time of the rise of Fascism in Europe, it explores the fundamental basis of individual identity. Jung was aware of the growing interest in the study of personality in the fields of psychology and education, particularly in the United States.
His key insight, parallel with his theory of individuation, is that true personality stems from the personal experience of vocation. This seminar will provide a brief introduction to the work of Brene Brown, who is a psychological researcher, storyteller and teacher from Houston, USA. Shame, Vulnerability, Resilience, and Daring Greatly are themes in her work.
She is also interested in spirituality and ethics, including encouraging people in business and leadership to be aware of their behaviour and relationships. Her ideas are very complimentary to Jungian thought and useful when working with people who want to develop their consciousness, emotional intelligence and relationships. Brown, B. With the concept of the collective unconscious, C. Jung recognized the deep link between psyche and society.
Both share the same root: that of the archetypes. For Freud , Winnicott and the object relations theories, the mother is structured as the object of the infant's rejection Freud and destruction Winnicott. For Lacan , the "woman" can either accept the phallic symbolic as an object or incarnate a lack in the symbolic dimension that informs the structure of the human subject.
Feminist psychoanalysis is mainly post-Freudian and post-Lacanian with theorists like Toril Moi , Joan Copjec , Juliet Mitchell ,  Teresa Brennan  and Griselda Pollock ,  following French feminist psychoanalysis,  the gaze and sexual difference in, of and from the feminine. The "adaptive paradigm of psychotherapy" develops out of the work of Robert Langs. The adaptive paradigm interprets psychic conflict primarily in terms of conscious and unconscious adaptation to reality.
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Relational psychoanalysis combines interpersonal psychoanalysis with object-relations theory and with inter-subjective theory as critical for mental health. It was introduced by Stephen Mitchell. Fonagy and Target, in London, have propounded their view of the necessity of helping certain detached, isolated patients, develop the capacity for "mentalization" associated with thinking about relationships and themselves. Arietta Slade, Susan Coates , and Daniel Schechter in New York have additionally contributed to the application of relational psychoanalysis to treatment of the adult patient-as-parent, the clinical study of mentalization in parent-infant relationships, and the intergenerational transmission of attachment and trauma.
Psychoanalysis - Wikipedia
The term interpersonal-relational psychoanalysis is often used as a professional identification. Psychoanalysts under this broader umbrella debate about what precisely are the differences between the two schools, without any current clear consensus. The term " intersubjectivity " was introduced in psychoanalysis by George E. Atwood and Robert Stolorow Intersubjective approaches emphasize how both personality development and the therapeutic process are influenced by the interrelationship between the patient's subjective perspective and that of others.
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Interventions based on this approach are primarily intended to provide an emotional-maturational communication to the patient, rather than to promote intellectual insight. These interventions, beyond insight directed aims, are used to resolve resistances that are presented in the clinical setting. This school of psychoanalysis has fostered training opportunities for students in the United States and from countries worldwide.
Its journal Modern Psychoanalysis has been published since The various psychoses involve deficits in the autonomous ego functions see above of integration organization of thought, in abstraction ability, in relationship to reality and in reality testing. In depressions with psychotic features, the self-preservation function may also be damaged sometimes by overwhelming depressive affect.
Because of the integrative deficits often causing what general psychiatrists call "loose associations", "blocking", " flight of ideas ", "verbigeration", and "thought withdrawal" , the development of self and object representations is also impaired. In patients whose autonomous ego functions are more intact, but who still show problems with object relations, the diagnosis often falls into the category known as "borderline". Borderline patients also show deficits, often in controlling impulses, affects, or fantasies — but their ability to test reality remains more or less intact.
Adults who do not experience guilt and shame, and who indulge in criminal behavior, are usually diagnosed as psychopaths, or, using DSM-IV-TR , antisocial personality disorder. Panic, phobias, conversions, obsessions, compulsions and depressions analysts call these " neurotic symptoms " are not usually caused by deficits in functions. Instead, they are caused by intrapsychic conflicts. The conflicts are generally among sexual and hostile-aggressive wishes, guilt and shame, and reality factors.
The conflicts may be conscious or unconscious, but create anxiety, depressive affect, and anger. Finally, the various elements are managed by defensive operations — essentially shut-off brain mechanisms that make people unaware of that element of conflict. Neurotic symptoms may occur with or without deficits in ego functions, object relations, and ego strengths.
Therefore, it is not uncommon to encounter obsessive-compulsive schizophrenics, panic patients who also suffer with borderline personality disorder , etc. This section above is partial to ego psychoanalytic theory "autonomous ego functions". As the "autonomous ego functions" theory is only a theory, it may yet be proven incorrect.
Freudian theories hold that adult problems can be traced to unresolved conflicts from certain phases of childhood and adolescence , caused by fantasy, stemming from their own drives. Freud, based on the data gathered from his patients early in his career, suspected that neurotic disturbances occurred when children were sexually abused in childhood the so-called seduction theory. Later, Freud came to believe that, although child abuse occurs, neurotic symptoms were not associated with this.
He believed that neurotic people often had unconscious conflicts that involved incestuous fantasies deriving from different stages of development. He found the stage from about three to six years of age preschool years, today called the "first genital stage" to be filled with fantasies of having romantic relationships with both parents. Arguments were quickly generated in early 20th-century Vienna about whether adult seduction of children, i.
There still is no complete agreement, although nowadays professionals recognize the negative effects of child sexual abuse on mental health. Many psychoanalysts who work with children have studied the actual effects of child abuse, which include ego and object relations deficits and severe neurotic conflicts.
Much research has been done on these types of trauma in childhood, and the adult sequelae of those.
In studying the childhood factors that start neurotic symptom development, Freud found a constellation of factors that, for literary reasons, he termed the Oedipus complex based on the play by Sophocles , Oedipus Rex , where the protagonist unwittingly kills his father Laius and marries his mother Jocasta. The validity of the Oedipus complex is now widely disputed and rejected.
Sandler in "On the Concept Superego" and modified by Charles Brenner in The Mind in Conflict — refers to the powerful attachments that children make to their parents in the preschool years. These attachments involve fantasies of sexual relationships with either or both parent, and, therefore, competitive fantasies toward either or both parents.
Core Practice 8 — Analysis: Moving with Polarities
Humberto Nagera has been particularly helpful in clarifying many of the complexities of the child through these years. Both seem to occur in development of most children. Eventually, the developing child's concessions to reality that they will neither marry one parent nor eliminate the other lead to identifications with parental values.
These identifications generally create a new set of mental operations regarding values and guilt, subsumed under the term "superego". Besides superego development, children "resolve" their preschool oedipal conflicts through channeling wishes into something their parents approve of "sublimation" and the development, during the school-age years "latency" of age-appropriate obsessive-compulsive defensive maneuvers rules, repetitive games. Using the various analytic and psychological techniques to assess mental problems, some believe that there are particular constellations of problems that are especially suited for analytic treatment see below whereas other problems might respond better to medicines and other interpersonal interventions.
To be treated with psychoanalysis, whatever the presenting problem, the person requesting help must demonstrate a desire to start an analysis. The person wishing to start an analysis must have some capacity for speech and communication. As well, they need to be able to have or develop trust and insight within the psychoanalytic session. Potential patients must undergo a preliminary stage of treatment to assess their amenability to psychoanalysis at that time, and also to enable the analyst to form a working psychological model, which the analyst will use to direct the treatment.
Psychoanalysts mainly work with neurosis and hysteria in particular; however, adapted forms of psychoanalysis are used in working with schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis or mental disorder. Finally, if a prospective patient is severely suicidal a longer preliminary stage may be employed, sometimes with sessions which have a twenty-minute break in the middle. There are numerous modifications in technique under the heading of psychoanalysis due to the individualistic nature of personality in both analyst and patient.
The most common problems treatable with psychoanalysis include: phobias , conversions , compulsions , obsessions , anxiety attacks , depressions , sexual dysfunctions , a wide variety of relationship problems such as dating and marital strife , and a wide variety of character problems for example, painful shyness, meanness, obnoxiousness, workaholism, hyperseductiveness, hyperemotionality, hyperfastidiousness. The fact that many of such patients also demonstrate deficits above makes diagnosis and treatment selection difficult. Analytical organizations such as the IPA, APsaA and the European Federation for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy have established procedures and models for the indication and practice of psychoanalytical therapy for trainees in analysis.
The match between the analyst and the patient can be viewed as another contributing factor for the indication and contraindication for psychoanalytic treatment. The analyst decides whether the patient is suitable for psychoanalysis. This decision made by the analyst, besides made on the usual indications and pathology, is also based to a certain degree by the "fit" between analyst and patient. A person's suitability for analysis at any particular time is based on their desire to know something about where their illness has come from.
Someone who is not suitable for analysis expresses no desire to know more about the root causes of their illness. An evaluation may include one or more other analysts' independent opinions and will include discussion of the patient's financial situation and insurances. The basic method of psychoanalysis is interpretation of the patient's unconscious conflicts that are interfering with current-day functioning — conflicts that are causing painful symptoms such as phobias, anxiety, depression, and compulsions. Strachey stressed that figuring out ways the patient distorted perceptions about the analyst led to understanding what may have been forgotten also see Freud's paper "Repeating, Remembering, and Working Through".
In particular, unconscious hostile feelings toward the analyst could be found in symbolic, negative reactions to what Robert Langs later called the "frame" of the therapy  — the setup that included times of the sessions, payment of fees, and necessity of talking. In patients who made mistakes, forgot, or showed other peculiarities regarding time, fees, and talking, the analyst can usually find various unconscious "resistances" to the flow of thoughts sometimes called free association. When the patient reclines on a couch with the analyst out of view, the patient tends to remember more experiences, more resistance and transference, and is able to reorganize thoughts after the development of insight — through the interpretive work of the analyst.
Although fantasy life can be understood through the examination of dreams , masturbation fantasies cf. Marcus, I. The analyst is interested in how the patient reacts to and avoids such fantasies cf. There is what is known among psychoanalysts as "classical technique", although Freud throughout his writings deviated from this considerably, depending on the problems of any given patient.
Classical technique was summarized by Allan Compton, MD, as comprising instructions telling the patient to try to say what's on their mind, including interferences ; exploration asking questions ; and clarification rephrasing and summarizing what the patient has been describing.
As well, the analyst can also use confrontation to bringing an aspect of functioning, usually a defense, to the patient's attention. The analyst then uses a variety of interpretation methods, such as dynamic interpretation explaining how being too nice guards against guilt, e.