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Publisher: University of Texas Press. Viva Cristo Rey: The Cristero Rebellion and the Church-State Conflict-ExLibrary . Saints and Sinners in the Cristero War: Stories of Martyrdom from Mexico (Paperb . Series, Texas Pan American.

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Defence Defence National International Industry. Company Corporate Trends Deals. International Business World News. Zee Ent. Market Watch. Pinterest Reddit. By Urmi Goswami. Forty-five years ago, the Club of Rome, an organisation of individuals who share a common concern for the future of humanity, published a study, The Limits to Growth, which initiated a debate about the impact of unlimited growth in population and demand for goods in a world with finite resources. Focusing on industrialisation, population, food, use of resources, pollution and modelled data up to , they developed a range of scenarios up to , taking into account steps taken to address environmental and resource issues.

The Limits to Growth generated controversy. Essentially this s study viewed economic growth as inimical to environmental protection and resource conservation. In the s, this would mean foreclosing the path to economic growth and consigning billions to poverty forever The social consensus was in favour of economic growth.

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Beginning in the late s, this gave rise to the concept of sustainable development. This approach argued that economic growth can be compatible with environmental protection and resource conservation. The global conversation was also beginning to focus on climate change.

Sustainability and Natural Resources

It was as if there is only one environment brain cell. The focus on climate change and sustainable development led to a re-engagement on the question of ensuring economic growth with the least impact on the environment.

The resulting concept of resource efficiency calls for the use of natural resources in a sustainable manner and minimising impact on the environment. This approach does not suggest limiting growth but provides a pathway to promote production using fewer natural resources. The Sustainable Development Goals adopted by all countries in recognise the need to address this issue, hence the focus on resource efficiency.

1. Introduction

This recognition received a political boost at the G20 Summit in Hamburg in early July, when world leaders agreed on initiating a G20 Resource Efficiency Dialogue. The dialogue will provide an opportunity to exchange good practices and national experiences to improve the efficiency and sustainability of natural resource use and to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns. It was an important step toward future dialog and active participation of civil society in sustainable development regimes from local to global levels. The Earth Summit unanimously adopted the Agenda 21, a comprehensive blue print of actions toward sustainable development, including detailed work plans, goals, responsibilities, and also estimates for funding.

Other important accomplishments included the Rio Declaration, a statement of broad principles to guide national conduct on environmental protection and development, and adoption of treaties on climate change and biodiversity, and forest management principles. Whether addressing vulnerability to environmental change, responsibility for environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity, or policy priorities, careful consideration of the particular groups of people involved, and their social, economic, and environmental conditions, is essential.

Focusing on people — their rights, capabilities, and opportunities — has multiple benefits for individuals, society, and their relationship with the environment. In Rio, the thinking was dominated by the goal of converging trends in different parts of the world. There was the clear hope that the developing countries would catch up, while the rich countries would become increasingly environmentally conscious and curb their excessive consumption and the related pollution and waste. This has not come to pass.

Consumption per se is not something to be avoided since it is one important aspect of improving human well-being. Equally important is the recognition that the relationships between well-being, levels of consumption, and environmental impacts depend on the value systems, the effectiveness of institutions, including forms of governance, as well as science, technology, and knowledge.

The lack of progress in turning Agenda 21 into actions for sustainable development leads to the Johannesburg World Summit on sustainable development. Johannesburg put the thrust on public—private partnerships for sustainable development through an endorsement of some such partnerships but most of these agreements failed to be implemented.

Prior to the Johannesburg Summit, in September , political leaders from around the world took an unprecedented step of setting concrete targets for millennium development goals MDGs related to the priority challenges of sustainable development, namely, poverty, hunger, education, gender, health, environmental sustainability, and a global partnership for development. All these issues are interrelated; one cannot be solved without tackling the others. The progress up to indicates that many of these MDGs are unlikely to be realized by The nations of the world at the Earth Summit failed to mobilize the financial resources for the implementation of Agenda 21, and the WSSD in Johannesburg failed to turn agenda into actions.

The critical issues of education and human capital were also not on the WSSD agenda. The scientific and technological capacity is essential and educational and research institutions around the world have a fundamental responsibility to contribute to this. Education comprises a lifelong learning system to cope with the changing needs and aspirations of society.

The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, starting in , lays the foundation to reform and mobilize education at all levels, from schools to universities, in support of sustainable development. Read full chapter. Iyyanki V. Muralikrishna, Valli Manickam, in Environmental Management , In , the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development met to discuss and develop a set of goals to work toward; they grew out of the Millennium Development Goals that claimed success in reducing global poverty while acknowledging there was still much more to do.

The Sustainable Development Goals SDG eventually came up with a list of 17 items 8 that included amongst other things:. Finally, it acknowledged the concept of nature having certain rights, that people have stewardship of the world, and the importance of putting people at the forefront of solving these global issues. It is efficient with resources and carefully planned to deliver both immediate and long-term benefits for people, the planet, and prosperity. The three pillars of sustainable development—economic growth, environmental stewardship, and social inclusion Fig.

Conservation and Sustainable Development

Figure 2. Pillars of sustainable development. Many of these objectives may seem to conflict with each other in the short term. For example, industrial growth might conflict with preserving natural resources. Yet, in the long term, responsible use of natural resources now will help ensure that there are resources available for sustained industrial growth far into the future.

Economic development is about providing incentives for businesses and other organizations to adhere to sustainability guidelines beyond their normal legislative requirements. The supply and demand market is consumerist in nature, and modern life requires a lot of resources every single day; economic development is about giving people what they want without compromising quality of life, especially in the developing world. Social development is about awareness of and legislation protection of the health of people from pollution and other harmful activities of business.

It deals with encouraging people to participate in environmental sustainability and teaching them about the effects of environmental protection as well as warning of the dangers if we cannot achieve our goals. Businesses that are able to keep their carbon emissions low is toward environmental development.

Environmental protection is the third pillar and, to many, the primary concern of the future of humanity. It defines how to protect ecosystems, air quality, integrity, and sustainability of our resources and focuses on the elements that place stress on the environment. It also concerns how technology will drive our greener future; and that developing technology is key to this sustainability and protecting the environment of the future from potential damage that technological advances could potentially bring. The process of describing indicators helps diverse members of a community reach consensus on what sustainability means.

Indicators help put sustainability in concrete terms that demonstrate a new way to measure progress. The sustainable development mode is a development mode proposed when humans face the environmental pressures and hazard risks from all aspects with the purpose for the harmonious development and environmental safety.

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  7. This development mode was once proposed in the s, and it has become an important topic drawing attention worldwide. The science fields connect the sustainable development science on which sustainable development mode depends with the global change science, namely the global change scientific research results are the basis for the sustainable development science; sustainable development science explores the scientific problems faced by humans for the sustainable development decisions from the application point of view.

    Sustainable development must solve the direct and indirect influences of natural hazard risks and environment pollution, namely it must accept the health and development risks caused by the hazard factors, and explore the sustainable development mode under the conditions of existing hazard resistance ability of human. Hazard is one of the main barriers of achieving sustainable development.

    Hazard is the product of the interaction of society and nature; it must influence the regional sustainable development process. Based on the aforementioned, according to the marine geological hazard characteristics and regional sustainable development evaluation requirements, construct the marine geological hazard index system, and propose the scientific evaluation method; for the in-depth analysis of the marine geological hazard, it is very necessary to fully understand the regional sustainable development ability. The influence of marine geological hazard on the regional sustainable development shows in direct damage and deep damage—the direct damage mainly includes the damage on human life and health, engineering facilities, materials, items and all kinds of properties, and the damage on agriculture, industry, traffic, and other industrial activities; the deep damage mainly includes the damage on land, water, biology, and other resources and ecological environment.

    The damage on these two aspects not only put the regional practical social and economic development at risk but also weaken the basic ability of the regional sustainable development at the deep level. Its basic steps are:. Investigate the marine geological hazard type, distribution, damage mode, loss degree, formation condition; investigate the social and economic condition, affected object quantity, distribution and the resistance and resume ability for all possible kinds of marine geological hazards; investigate the hazard alleviation ability.

    Analyze the marine geological hazard risk mode, risk strength, and based on this, establish the index system and evaluation model corresponding to the evaluation area characteristics. Classify the evaluation units, collect the basic index one by one and analyze layer by layer, obtain the required layer classification index and target layer index.

    With this as the basis, use the classification or zoning to comprehensively analyze the influence degree and influence mode of marine geological hazard on the regional sustainable development. Sustainable development is a concept defined as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs by the World Commission on Environment and Development the Brundtland Commission.

    Sustainable development has become a fundamental, overarching objective of EU policies especially since The EU has taken the initiative to build a sustainable low-carbon and low-input economy, to increase resource efficiency, to decrease energy consumption, to reverse the loss of biodiversity and natural resources, and to limit climate change. Sustainable energy is a key enabler for sustainable development. The new SDGs include a specific goal on energy to e nsure access to affordable , reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.

    This goal includes three targets and indicators for 1 ensuring universal access to modern energy services; 2 doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix; and 3 doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency. Although SDGs make no reference to the contribution of biomass for the food, feed, fiber, materials, and energy production, biomass can make a significant contribution to the achievement of the SDGs. Modern bioenergy, as part of the bioeconomy, is expected to increase globally driven by several SDGs and to play an important role in the future sustainable energy supply, fostering sustainable energy for all and climate goals Fritsche et al.

    Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.

    The four pillars of sustainability

    Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all. Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all. Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.