Hence, in a context of crisis and increasing domestic difficulties as well as an absence of monitoring tools like the PIEC, the school drop-out rate is also rising and there is a backward trend in the fight against child labour. According to the Ministry of Education, the school drop-out rate stood at While the CGTP—IN acknowledges that the economic exploitation of child labour has diminished considerably in Portugal, there are still sectors in which child labour persists in a hidden form, such as in family work on farms or commercial operations, and domestic work done for third parties.
In addition, the activities of the Authority for Working Conditions ACT has been considerably reduced due to a drastic reduction in human and material resources, a situation that is increasingly exacerbated by the effects of the crisis and the implementation of the austerity measures. According to the data on ACT inspections of child workers, 77 visits were carried out in , and one minor was detected to be working in violation of the minimum age requirements. The Government further indicates that no cases of child workers were found in domestic or home-based occupations.
Furthermore, the PIEF, in its new role also offers psychosocial care, in addition to offering education and training to students thereby responding to the specific needs of the student in integrating them into schools.
Arenas F. Benjamin W. Arendt ed. Illuminations New York Schocken Books : - Gesammelte Schriften Vol.
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Suhrkamp : - Brown J. Cahen M. Morier-Genoud E. Cahen eds. Imperial Migrations.
Cardoso M. Contador A. Ferreira C. Fonseca A. Higbee W. Jorge L. Lopes M. Couto A. Margarido A. Marissa M. Martins M. Medeiros P. Ponzanesi and M. Waller eds. Brugioni et ali. Rothberg M. Santos B. Wallerstein I.
Abreu R. Alge B. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent.
Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Decolonization resulted in more than half a million Portuguese settlers giving up their life in Africa. Most of them headed to Portugal, where they were called retornados returnees.
As living reminders of an illegitimate history, they do not fit into the dominant post-imperial historical narratives in Portugal and have until recently been invisible within the public arena. For these purposes, the article is based on the concept of non-memory, a concept which relates to gaps in the social memory that arise from the concealment of certain problematic historical events regarded as illegitimate or shameful for the myths and ideologies of national consciousness.
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Although it focuses on the Portuguese case, this article is placed in the wider context of the memorial place of the end of the empire in postcolonial Europe. Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Find out about Lean Library here. Skip to main content.
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Abstract Full Text Abstract. Keywords colonial return , non-memory , Portugal , Portuguese decolonization , Portuguese retornados , post colonial memory.