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Publisher: University of Texas Press. Viva Cristo Rey: The Cristero Rebellion and the Church-State Conflict-ExLibrary . Saints and Sinners in the Cristero War: Stories of Martyrdom from Mexico (Paperb . Series, Texas Pan American.

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De Bry takes other liberties as he combines these two illustrations. For example, once again he moves a scene from the original woodcut out of the wilderness and into the village with its huts and fortress-like fence.

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Two men work on dismembering the body, whose head has been chopped off and is being held as if for display by a child who looks more like a little old man than a youth. Added to the original scene of dismemberment is a woman who is bent over while holding a platter for the entrails. Her gaze is directed downward—as if she were appraising the quality of the meat.

The scene also shows women holding large appendages aloft: somewhat like the woman with the platter, one female is holding and judging a sturdy leg limb, and another is running with a severed arm to the cooking pot. This nib- bling is described by Staden and others as a prelude to consumption. De Bry also modifies the bearded figure Staden by crossing his arms over his chest as if in a defensive pose instead of with his hands folded in prayer. The illustration shows a bar- beque of sorts: men, women, and children are feasting on a variety of body parts as other limbs cook over a long, raised wooden rack.

De Bry seems to have reveled in providing detail here: we can see the fat globules dripping from the various grilled limbs and the curl of fingers that appear to be grip- ping the rack as they roast. In a certain degree even, their voracity is even greater, as they devour the human flesh without restraint, while the old women, more discreet in their pleasure, are satisfied to collect the drippings from it. By the end of the century, this kind of imagery would be eclipsed by equally fantastic images of a population that existed only to eat flesh.

At the same time, Brazil would continue to be touted as a land of riches and opportunity. Portuguese seafaring ultimately gave way to the colonization of the Brazilian coast and the exploration of the interior, and new ways of imagining the country would emerge based on new discoveries of a vast mineral wealth in the interior.

Although images of anthropophagy continued to appear on maps and in other texts about Brazil in the early seventeenth century, it was during the Dutch occupation of the country that a discernible return to images defin- ing Brazil as a paradise or locus amoenus can be found. This shift can be explained by a variety of factors: unlike the Portuguese, the Dutch estab- lished friendly relations with the indigenous populations in the Northeast, including the Tapuias, who were greatly feared by the Portuguese; enslaved Africans had largely replaced Indian labor in the fields, and indigenous peoples either assimilated or fled into the interior; and perhaps most im- portantly, the Calvinist military leader of the Dutch expedition to Brazil, Prince Johan Maurits von Nassau-Siegen, went to great lengths to forge and market a seductively bucolic image of Brazil that would not only attract other Dutch settlers to Brazil but also celebrate his accomplishments as a colonial administrator.

The iconography on five maps of Brazil produced by the Dutch between and , a period when Portugal and its colonies were under Spanish rule, sheds further light on the image of Brazil constructed by cartographers from abroad. Scenes of dismemberment, execution, and anthropophagy hold prominence in Dutch representations of the country on maps by Jan Van Doet , Arnold Florentin Van Langeren , and Clemendt de Jonghe Standing alongside this man-monster is an Amazon warrior who, in comparison, looks more real than mythic and various animals, including a deer, a dog, and a boar.

The scene is unusual because instead of portraying Indians as cannibals, it depicts two large groups of comely and attentive natives gath- ered at each side of the litter, somewhat like Roman senators united around their Caesar. A palace appears in the far background of the engraving, ap- parently the home and destination of the traveling regal figure. The emergence of the Dutch West India Company in spurred the invasion and occupation first of Bahia — , then more successfully of Pernambuco and areas to the north,. The maps described above are important to consider for what they do and do not represent pictorially.


For example, although brazilwood was still. As historian Boris Fausto notes, in the sixteenth century, sugar was a luxury item in Europe and was becoming increasingly popular in haute cui- sine , A labor-intensive industry, sugarcane plantations required large numbers of workers, the majority of whom in the mid-six- teenth century were native Brazilians who had been forced into slavery or, as converts from the Jesuits missions, worked for slave wages.

This fantastic image was based on what Captain Laurence Keymis later documented as a legend created around a people who retained their shoulders in a raised, hunched position, believing, for whatever reason, that it gave them a more aestheti- cally pleasing countenance in Gheerbrant , 48— In this section he documented the history of the Amazons and then turned his attention to their culture, writing that the warriors resided in little huts or caves and regularly killed male offspring while nurturing the females.

Thevet was far from the first to write about the Amazons. In the drawing, three naked Amazons successfully distract a European male dressed in full colonial regalia, as a fourth Ama- zon, who stands behind him, is posed to strike him down with a club. In their Reise in Brasilien Voyage Through Brazil , dated —, the Austri- an naturalists Johann Baptist von Spix and Karl Friedrich Philipp von Mar- tius stated that it was a characteristic of New World literature and I would add, New World cartography to shock the sensibility of the Old World by emphasizing the dangers monsters, anthropophagy, and so forth faced by travelers and explorers Spix and Martius , Thevet ultimately retracted what he wrote about the Amazons in his revised La cosmographie, stating that they were simply unfortunate women who endeavored to pre- serve their lives, children, and property while their husbands were away.

Gener- ally, Portuguese reign in the New World was iconographically represented by ships off the coast or fortresses on land. But what is the relationship between this central engraving and the smaller image of Indi- ans practicing dismemberment that appears on the map near the coastline? However, Jonghe makes a further stylistic distinction by. The larger engraving suggests a micro- cosm—an ordered world where royalty sits secure in its position of power above the serf or Indian and where civilization in the form of the palace presides over a vast wilderness.

The dismemberment iconography makes clear that not all people and activities are part of this microcosm; nonethe- less, these are portrayed as marginal and not at all threatening to the social order. Whether Jonghe was representing Portuguese or Dutch imperialism is not clear. The fact that Jonghe was a Dutchman would seem to support the latter. At that time in Brazil, Dutch imperialism was represented by the enlightened and relatively peaceful rule of Prince Maurits, who had good relations with the indigenous populations. Moerbeeck had presented his study in April to the prince of Orange and lords of the Low Countries; he enumerated more than a dozen sometimes questionable and contradic- tory reasons that not only the Northeast but all of Brazil should be con- quered by the Dutch.

He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this lively style of painting into Dutch art. City Hall on the Grote Markt, built in the 14th century, replacing the Count's castle, after this had burnt down partially.

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The remainders were given to the city. Sketch of the siege of Haarlem seen from the North, with Het Dolhuys on the right, and the river Spaarne on the left. The legend of the Haarlem shield, painting c. The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe.

Oak figurine found in Willemstad BCE. Rorik of Dorestad , Viking ruler of Friesland romantic depiction. Maarten van Heemskerck painted this altarpiece, Saint Luke painting the Virgin before he left Haarlem for Italy in Doorway to the original monastery of the Carmelites and the Vrouwebroerskerk. Called the Guldenbergspoortje or Golden mountain gate in the Grote Houtstraat. Transcription of Salomon de Bray 's proposed hierarchy of the guild in Salomon's son Jan de Bray painted himself second from the left. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used.

The final work is also called a painting. The Mona Lisa , by Leonardo da Vinci , is one of the most recognizable paintings in the world. An artistic depiction of a group of Rhinos, was completed in the Chauvet Cave 30, to 32, years ago. Chen Hongshou — , Leaf album painting Ming Dynasty. Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art — natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view — with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.

Patinir pioneered the " world landscape " style. Landscape with scene from the Odyssey , Rome, c. The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, music, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the midth century. Facade of St. Peter's Basilica early 17th century. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. The Americas comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America.

Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World. America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. Relief of Leiden , painting by Otto van Veen. Inundated meadows allow the Dutch fleet access to the Spanish infantry positions. Adriaen van Ostade painted by Frans Hals c.

Peasants in a Tavern c. Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country.

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The state of Pernambuco also includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9. Fernando de Noronha Islands. Museu Nacional de Belas Artes collection. Giovanni Maria Bottalla , Deucalion and Pyrrha c. One of the paintings brought from Portugal by John VI.

Exhibition room with Brazilian paintings of the permanent collection. Portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud , In the visual arts, composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or'ingredients' in a work of art, as distinct from the subject.